Mary & the Birth of Jesus Clarified
H. Abdul Al-Dahir
Many biblical scholars assign the virgin birth of Jesus to a pagan origin. There were many historical and mythical figures as Plato and Mithras who were assigned a miraculous conception by ancient authors. Many scholars view Jesus as an historical person whose unusual conception, as described in the gospels, early Christians invented to gain converts. Among these authors are listed the authors of the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, who described scenes of heavenly wonder at Jesus’ nativity as well as acknowledgment of his special status by foreign sages who gave him expensive and symbolic gifts.
Although the nativity stories in Matthew and Luke are cited as the source of the virgin birth narratives, the first hint that the unusual circumstances surrounding the conception of Jesus was not derived from foreign myths, but was known among his fellow town folks, can be found in the Gospel of Mark. Since the Gospel of Mark does not contain the nativity narrative, the Muslim will find the narrative in the Quran to be explicit and sufficient. Before analyzing the story, a brief history derived from the Quran about the lives of Jesus (3sa) and his mother, Miriam or Mary:
Jesus was a combination of the two warring Jewish sects; the Samaritans and the Judean sects. It appears from the Quran that Miriam was a Levite (sister of Aaron) and a Nazarite dedicated to the temple from her mother’s womb. Her family was from Galilee which means they most likely subscribed to the Samaritan sect.
Female Nazarites in First Century Palestine were allowed in the temple or synagogue from the age of 3 until the age of 12 or the age of menarche. The priests did not allow girls after the age of 12 to remain in the temple or synagogue due to the fear that their menses would pollute the temple. Zakariya, a priest (cohen) from the line of Abiya thru Aaron, and a relative of Miriam’s mother, took care of Miriam while she was in the temple. At the age of 12, Miriam would have been engaged to a fellow Levite from her Samaritan sect. Allah (swt) sent Gabriel to her to announce that she was going to have a son. She protested that ‘no man had touched her’ or she was a virgin. Gabriel said basically that what happens to her is the will of Allah (swt) to which she agreed. Miriam informed her guardian, Zakariya, who immediately understood that Miriam should be engaged to a Levite named Yusuf who was from the rival Judean sect. This was a risky proposition for Miriam as her clan would never accept a marriage to a Judean as a legitimate union as the Judeans were deadly enemies of the Samaritans.
Miriam entered into the marriage which forced her to leave her clan for another location. She became pregnant, bore 3sa and then brought the baby back to her clan who accused her of having an illegitimate child which she bore from a marriage which the Samaritan sect would not recognize as legitimate. Miriam was a Levite and the punishment for such behavior was death by immolation for the mother and expulsion from the congregation for the child who they viewed as a mamzer. The execution never took place because Miriam was protected by Zakaria who raised 3sa in the temple to teach him the Torah and to protect him from his own clan.
3sa’s first mission was to the Jerusalem temple. He gathered followers from Galilee and headed to Jerusalem to preach a proper interpretation of the Torah and to challenge the corrupt temple authority. The mission was aborted when the temple authority attempted to have him killed by the Roman occupiers. Thomas took the place of 3sa and was executed in his stead. 3sa and his followers fled to Galilee where they reorganized and entered Samaria where he was accepted as the Samaritan Tahab ( one like Moses). He and his followers attempted to rebuild the Samaritan temple on Mount Gerizem. Pontius Pilate got wind of this. He was most likely notified of the attempt to rebuild the Samaritan temple by the Judean temple authority which was violently opposed to another temple. Pilate invaded Samaria, thwarted the attempt to rebuild the temple and slaughtered those involved in the attempt. Josephus reported this attempt and labeled the leader as the Samaritan Prophet, who was obviously 3sa (as). No one knows if he was killed or escaped. What we do know is that 3sa (as) was the Prophet sent to unite the two Jewish sects as he was a unique, divinely appointed Levite born of a Samaritin mother and a Judean father.
The beginning of the story of the lives of Miriam (Mary) starts with the Quran. The Quran portrays Mary, the mother of the Prophet Jesus, as divinely chosen to become the mother of Jesus. Quran 19:16-33 states:
[19:16] Mention in the scripture Mary. She isolated herself from her family, into an eastern location.[19:17] While a barrier separated her from them, we sent to her our Spirit. He went to her in the form of a human being.[19:18] She said, “I seek refuge in the Most Gracious, that you may be righteous.”[19:19] He said, “I am the messenger of your Lord, to grant you a pure son.”[19:20] She said, “How can I have a son, when no man has touched me; I have never been unchaste.”[19:21] He said, “Thus said your Lord, ‘It is easy for Me. We will render him a sign for the people, and mercy from us. This is a predestined matter.'”[19:22] When she bore him, she isolated herself to a faraway place.[19:23] The birth process came to her by the trunk of a palm tree. She said, “I wish I were dead before this happened, and completely forgotten.”[19:24] However, a call from beneath her, said, “Do not grieve. Your Lord has provided you with a stream.[19:25] “If you shake the trunk of this palm tree, it will drop ripe dates for you.[19:26] “Eat and drink, and be happy. When you see anyone, say, ‘I have made a vow of silence; I am not talking today to anyone.'”[19:27] She came to her family, carrying him. They said, “O Mary, you have committed something that is totally unexpected.[19:28] “O descendant of Aaron, your father was not a wicked man, nor was your mother unchaste.”[19:29] She pointed to him. They said, “How can we talk to a boy in a cradle?”[19:30] He said, “I am a servant of God. He has given me the scripture, and has appointed me a prophet.[19:31] “He made me blessed wherever I go, and enjoined me to observe the Prayers (Salat) and the obligatory charity (Zakat) for as long as I live.[19:32] “I am to honor my mother; He did not make me a disobedient rebel.[19:33] “And peace be upon me the day I was born, the day I die, and the day I get resurrected.”
In order to understand the circumstances surrounding Mary’s presentation of Jesus to her town folk, one must understand the First Century Jewish custom of dedicating girls to temple service as described in the Protevangelium of James. The Quran gives an extensive account of these circumstances in the Quran 3:35:39:
Remember when a woman of ’Imrân said, “My Lord! I dedicate what is in my womb entirely to Your service,1 so accept it from me. You alone are truly the All-Hearing, All-Knowing.” When she delivered, she said, “My Lord! I have given birth to a girl,”—and Allah fully knew what she had delivered—“and the male is not like the female.1 I have named her Mary, and I seek Your protection for her and her offspring from Satan, the accursed.”So her Lord accepted her graciously and blessed her with a pleasant upbringing—entrusting her to the care of Zachariah. Whenever Zachariah visited her in the sanctuary, he found her supplied with provisions. He exclaimed, “O Mary! Where did this come from?” She replied, “It is from Allah. Surely Allah provides for whoever He wills without limit.”Then and there Zachariah prayed to his Lord, saying, “My Lord! Grant me—by your grace—righteous offspring. You are certainly the Hearer of all prayers.”So the angels called out to him while he stood praying in the sanctuary, “Allah gives you good news of the birth of John who will confirm the Word of Allah and will be a great leader, chaste, and a prophet among the righteous.”
The Protoevangelium of James, like the Quran, explains that Mary as a Jewish citizen of First Century Palestine was a perpetual Nazarite who was so dedicated by her parents. The article, “Mary in the Protevangelium of James: A Jewish Woman in the Temple?”, explores the Protevangelium of James and its very accurate depiction of the 1st Century dedication of Jewish girls to temple service. (The article is located at: https://grbs.library.duke.edu/article/viewFile/14673/3895.). Although the author does not draw a conclusion about Mary’s marriageability as a perpetual Nazarite, after reading the article, one understands that Jesus was not the result of a virgin birth, but the result of a perpetual Nazarite being promised to a man who was unacceptable to her Samaritan sect.
According to Mark 6, Jesus’ town folk separated Jesus from his siblings by referring to him as the ‘son of Mary’, a derogatory phrase indicating that his biological father, Joseph, was not his legitimate father because a perpetual female Nazarite dedicated to the temple from her mother’s womb, was not eligible for marriage to a man outside of her Samaritan sect. Joseph was a Judean making him ineligible to marry the a woman of the Samaritan sect. Mary’s marriage was considered to be illegitimate by her clan, so Jesus was smeared as an ‘illegitimate’ son even though it was known that his biological father was Joseph. And, so, began the myth of Mary’s virginity and her son’s conception by a divinity who ‘overshadowed’ her in order to beget a half divine son or a demigod inspired by the Greek and Roman mythologies about Zeus’/Jupiter’s seduction of human females.
An additional reason for the Quran’s insistence on addressing 3sa as the Son of Mary, is that 3sa’s claim to messiahship (a member of those qualified to be anointed) and prophethood came from his mother’s lineage. May was a member of the tribe of Levi and descendant of Imran and Haroun. The tribe of Levi was the tribe of prophets and priests. The tribe of 3sa’s father, Yusuf (Joseph), was the tribe of Judah, the tribe of the Judean kings. So, 3sa himself may have promoted his legitimacy as a prophet and messiah through his maternal line. His town folk may have been mocking him when they addressed him as the ‘son of Mary’, because they did not accept his maternal lineage as a legitimate qualification for prophethood, since one’s ancestry was traditionally traced through patrilineal descent.
In addition. Esa was a prophet who preached in Galilee, Samaria and Judea. His unique lineage was a passport into these areas. He preached in these areas in order to heal the rift between the Samaritans (Miriam was a Samaritan from Galilee) and the Judeans (Yusuf was from Judea). His mission was at least 4 fold: 1) to heal the rift between the Samaritans and the Judeans, 2) to reform the overly strict interpretation of the Torah, 3) to oust the Jerusalem temple authority which was collaborating with the Romans and 4) to rid Palestine of the Roman occupation and re-establish a reformed interpretation of the Torah as the law of the land.
Both the Samaritan’s and the Judeans were expecting a ‘rescuer’ to save them from foreign occupation, because of the rivalry between the two sects, Marys’ town folk questioned the legitimacy of her son. Mary and her family were Samaritans who lived in Galilee and Mary according to the Gospels married a man from Judah who adhered to the Temple in Jerusalem. The Samaritan and Jewish sects were very hostile to one another. According to Wikipedia:
“The Samaritans claimed that they were the true Israel who were descendants of the “Ten Lost Tribes” taken into Assyrian captivity. They had their own sacred precinct on Mount Gerizim and claimed that it was the original sanctuary. Moreover, they claimed that their version of the Pentateuch was the original and that the Jews had a falsified text produced by Ezra during the Babylonian exile.
Both Jewish and Samaritan religious leaders taught that it was wrong to have any contact with the opposite group, and neither was to enter the other’s territories or even to speak to the other. During the New Testament period, the tensions were exploited by Roman authorities as they likewise had done between rival tribal factions elsewhere, and Josephus reports numerous violent confrontations between Jews and Samaritans throughout the first half of the first century.”
Since, Joseph was from the rival sect in Jerusalem, Mary’s town folk would not have viewed her marriage as legitimate which meant her, son, Jesus was considered to be a bastard.
Understanding Mary’s status as a Nazarite and her marriage to a man from a Jewish sect hostile to the Samaritan sect explains the Quran’s narrative depicting Mary introducing her son to her town folk when he was an infant. The town folk’s accusations to this Nazarite mother were interrupted when the infant Jesus spoke to them and defended her. The majority of the town folk accepted the miracle and the message. However, according to the Quran 4:156, there were those who refused to acknowledge the miracle and circulated calumnious rumors about Mary: “And because of their disbelief and of their speaking against Mary a tremendous calumny.” This ‘tremendous calumny’ continued in subsequent Jewish literature.
The Jewish accusation that Mary was unchaste and produced an illegitimate son was a popular Jewish belief even in medieval times. The medieval book, Toledot Jeshu (Book of the Life of Jesus), is a Hebrew book that belittles Jesus by ascribing to him illegitimate birth, magic, witchcraft, and a shameful death. The main point of the Toledot is that Jesus is a deceiver and a heretic who was crucified by the Jews after which his disciples stole his body and deceived others by proclaiming his resurrection. All the Toledot Jeshu editions declared Jesus Christ to be a bastard. His mother, Mary, is portrayed in the Toledot as a woman who conceived Jesus as a result of rape by a Roman soldier, Joseph Pandera.
This essay seeks to demonstrate that the Quran’s version of Jesus’ nativity is accurate. The Quran addressed the Jewish and Christian tribes in Arabia whose ‘qasas’ or tribal lore was derived from various sources which included the ‘Desposyni’ who were Jesus’ relatives that headed the the Jewish followers of Jesus in Jerusalem. These followers became known as the Ebionites whose doctrines affirmed that Jesus was a wholly human prophet who was the son of Mary.
Jesus’ family was forcefully evicted from Jerusalem by Pope Sylvester I. They then fled into Persia and the Arabian Peninsula bringing with them their family history regarding their famous relative, Jesus son of Mary. These stories or ‘qasas’ are reported in the Quran as the above story which portrays the birth of Jesus. This essay will also demonstrate that there is in the Gospel of Mark evidence that Jesus was a legitimate Prophet and that this fact was known and not kept secret as the gospels of Matthew and Luke contend. According to the Quran, this evidence began with Jesus’ introduction as an infant to his town folk.
There is convincing evidence that the town folk were aware of Jesus’ conception by divine decree and they were divided into two groups; those who rejected him and his mother and those who accepted her pronouncement of a divine release from her Nazarite vows. The earliest evidence of this split in opinion is recorded in Greek in the Gospel of Mark, the first gospel of the synoptic gospels to be written. In chapter Six of this gospel, Jesus returned to his hometown in Galilee to speak in the synagogues when his town folk accosted him. According to verse three, the townsfolk addressed Jesus by saying:
“Is not this the carpenter (tekton), the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon? And are not his sisters here with us?” And they took offense at him.”
What is striking in this passage is that Jesus is addressed as “the son of Mary” and not the son of Joseph. According to the classic.net bible.org, addressing a child by his mother’s name was an insult for it implied that the child was a bastard. Politeness demanded that the child be addressed by the father’s name.
“2 sn The reference to Jesus as the carpenter is probably derogatory, indicating that they knew Jesus only as a common laborer like themselves. The reference to him as the son of Mary … appears to be somewhat derogatory, for a man was not regarded as his mother’s son in Jewish usage unless an insult was intended (cf. Judg 11:1-2; John 6:42; 8:41; 9:29).”
Judges 11:1-2 reads:
“Jdg 11:1 Now Jephthah the Gileadite was a mighty warrior, but he was the son of a harlot. Gilead was the father of Jephthah. Jdg 11:2 And Gilead’s wife also bore him sons; and when his wife’s sons grew up, they thrust Jephthah out, and said to him, “You shall not inherit in our father’s house; for you are the son of another woman.”
While the title ‘son of Mary’ ascribed to Jesus by his town folk is derogatory in the context of Mark 6:3, this very title has become to Muslims one of honor and an acknowledgment of his conception by divine decree releasing Mary from her vows. However, Jesus’ town folk take the accusation one step further by calling Jesus a ‘tekton’ which is a Greek substitute for the Aramaic word ‘tachan’.
In Mark 6:3, the Greek word for carpenter is ‘tekton’. However, the language of Jesus was not Greek, but Aramaic; and Aramaic words do appear in this gospel. The original word may not have been the Greek ‘tekton’, but the Aramaic word ‘tachan’. A later editor seems to have changed the Aramaic word to a like sounding Greek word. The Aramaic word for carpenter is nagara and bears no resemblance to the Greek ‘tekton’. According to Strong’s Hebrew & Greek Dictionary, the word tachan is defined as “a primitive root; to grind meal; hence, to be a concubine (that being their employment):–grind(-er).”
The above reference bolsters the proposal that the Greek word ‘tekton’ (carpenter) is a substitution for the Hebrew/Aramaic word ‘tachan’ which means ‘grinder of grain’ or ‘miller’ as well as concubine; concubine in the sense of prostitute. Hebrew masters often prostituted their concubines for favors and/or wealth. ‘Tachan’ not only meant concubine/prostitute, but also male prostitute. The word appears in this derogatory sense in the Bible, especially in the story of Samson, who was sexually humiliated by his Philistine captors. Judges 16:21 states:
“So the Philistines captured him (Samson) and gouged out his eyes. They took him to Gaza, where he was bound with bronze chains and he did grind (twchan) in the prison.”
Samson’s ‘grinding’ (twchan) is a euphemism for him being the victim of repeated sodomy by his captors. (Samson’s conception story in Judges is the source of the Jesus’ conception story in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. Read further for details.).
A similar scene appears in Lamentations 5:11-13 which describes the humiliation of Jerusalem. The women are raped and the young men are sodomized, i.e., they are compelled to grind or commit sodomy (tachwn). The rape of the male youth is a parallel statement to the rape of the women. This parallelism confirms the interpretation that the phrase ‘compelled to grind’ is a euphemism for the youths’ subjugation to forced sodomy.
“Our enemies rape the women in Jerusalem and the young girls in all the towns of Judah. Our princes are being hanged by their thumbs, and our elders are treated with contempt. They (the Babylonians) took the young men to be sodomized (tachwn) and boys stagger under loads of wood.”
The use of sodomy to humiliate males is fully described in Isaiah 47:2 which portrays the wrath God will visit on Babylon where he will treat the city as a male prostitute:
“Take the millstones and grind (wtachani) flour, put off your veil, strip off your robe, uncover your legs, pass through the rivers. Your nakedness shall be uncovered, yes, your shame shall be seen: I will take vengeance, and I will not meet you as a man.”
The implication in the phrase, “I will not meet you as a man” is that the Hebrew god, YHWH, will treat the city as a woman meaning a male prostitute.
Jesus was addressed as ‘tachan’; a reference to the rumor that he was a bastard in the sense that Mary had violated her Nazarite vows which made her marriage to Joseph, and the consequent conception of Jesus, illegitimate. Jesus’ town folk were, in effect, telling him that as a bastard he bore the same status as a male ‘grinder of grain’ or male prostitute. Since, it was well known that addressing a male as ‘tachan’ was tantamount to accusing him of prostitution, later editors of Mark changed the Aramaic ‘tachan’ to the Greek ‘tekton’ meaning carpenter. Jesus responded to this insult by saying in Mark 6:4:
Then Jesus told them, “A prophet is honored everywhere except in his own hometown and among his relatives and his own family.”
The word ‘family’ applies to Jesus’ extended family or his clan. Jesus’ brother, James, became the leader of the community in Jerusalem, so the foregoing accusation of disrespect did not apply to Jesus’ immediate family.
If the above proposal is accurate, Mark’s gospel is the earliest record that Jesus’ conception was considered to be ritually illegitimate by his town folk and that at least some of these folk cast aspersions on his and his mother’s reputations. Thus, we can conclude that the story of Jesus’ conception was in early circulation. Furthermore, according to Mark 6, Mary as the wife of Joseph and mother of Jesus by her husband, Joseph, produced more sons and daughters for Joseph.
Mary lived a normal life among her townsfolk even among those who questioned her release from her Nazarite status. She was not accused of behaving promiscuously as she did not suffer the punishment of a fornicator (Lev 21:9), so her community knew that she was a chaste woman. Furthermore, her son was not excluded from the community (Deut 23:2) as an illegitimate son. Instead he was educated as a teacher or rabbi. Such an education indicated that Mary was from a priestly family, perhaps of the Samaritan sect.
Mary’s family, especially her cousin Elizabeth’s husband, Zachariah, the priest, knew that she was divinely authorized to enter into a marriage with a Judean. Mary had obviously informed Zachariah, who was appointed as her foster parent during her stay at the temple, that she had been divinely released from her Nazarite status. He did not question her miraculous release from her vows as he had a similar experience regarding the announcement of his impending fatherhood of his son, John the Baptizer. As a priest, he was able to protect Mary from the consequences of her marriage and the conception of a son. His protection also guaranteed that Jesus would be educated in the temple along with his cousin, John.
Although, there appears to have been two versions of Jesus’ birth in early circulation; one that his mother was impregnated by divine decree (indicated in Matthew & Luke) and the other that his mother was unchaste and her son was illegitimate (indicated in Mark), the fact that Jesus was a student of the Torah and preached in the synagogues argues that the circumstances surrounding his conception were either well-known and accepted or that these circumstances were kept secret. The fact that Mark describes Jesus’ town folk as addressing him as the ‘son of Mary’ argues that his conception as a result of his mother being divinely ordered into a marriage with a Judean, was well known and accepted by some and rejected by others. Otherwise, he would have been banned from studying the Torah and from preaching in the synagogues. According to Deu 23:2: “A bastard shall not enter into the congregation of the LORD; even to his tenth generation shall he not enter into the congregation of the LORD.”
The fact that Jesus was a student of the Torah and a rabbi also argues against the idea that Jesus’ father was a carpenter; a fact that is elaborated upon in Jhn 3:2 which states: “The same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles that thou doest, except God be with him.” Jesus’ education and his acceptance in the synagogues as a rabbi; a title, which according to the Gospel of John, was used to address Jesus, is an indication that Jesus was a Levite and that Mary may have been, like her cousin Elizabeth, a daughter of Aaron (meaning from the priestly line of Aaron) as is indicated in Luke.
The upshot of all of this indicates that there were two concurrent and opposing versions of Jesus’ paternity. One that he was conceived by a divine decree and was fatherless which was a gross distortion of the divine decree which only released his mother from her vows and allowed her to marry and conceive a son by Joseph, her husband. The other was that he was the son of a ‘tachan’ or promiscuous woman. Both of these stories issued from the lore of First Century Palestine as indicated by their repetition in Matthew and in Luke. Both Matthew and Luke greatly embellished the divine decree origin of Jesus by stating that he was conceived by a divinity and that foreign sages bearing costly gifts visited him as an infant and that a star indicated the location of his birth while the angels announced his nativity to shepherds in the field.
In addition, the conception stories in Matthew and Luke seem to be based upon the Septuagint (LXX) version of Samson’s conception story in the Book of Judges. One can compare the Masoretic (MT) version of events to the Septuagint (LXX) version.
MT – Jud 13:3 Then the messenger of YHWH appeared to the woman (who became Samson’s mother) and said to her, Behold now, you are barren and have not borne, but you shall conceive and bear a son.
LXX -And appeared an angel of the Lord to the woman, and he said to her, Behold, you are barren, and have not borne; yet you shall conceive a son.
Now comes the Nazarite vow:
MT – Now therefore, please beware, drink not wine nor strong drink, nor eat any unclean thing.
LXX – And now guard and do not drink wine and liquor, and do not eat any unclean thing!
So, now, Samson’s mother has become a Nazarite. Here is the next verse:
MT – For behold, you shall conceive and bear a son, and no razor shall come upon his head, for the boy shall be a Nazir to Elohim from the womb; and he shall begin to deliver Yisra’El from the hands of the Philistines.
Look what happens in the LXX interpretation of events in this verse:
LXX – For behold, you have one in the womb, and you shall bear a son, and an iron razor shall not ascend upon his head, for a Nazarite to Elohim shall be the boy from the womb; and he shall begin to deliver Israel from out of the hand of the Philistines.
According to the LXX, Samson’s mother was barren, the angel appeared to her to announce that she would have a son, she took the Nazarite vow after which she immediately became pregnant before her husband even knew about the annunciation. This is very similar to Mary’s annunciation story without the deity ‘overshadowing’ her. According to Matthew:
“This is how the birth of Jesus the Messiah came about: His mother Mary was pledged to be married to Joseph, but before they came together, she was found to be pregnant through the Holy Spirit.”
In other words, the story of Jesus’ conception in Matthew and Luke is based upon the LXX version of Samson’s conception. Samson was a judge of Israel who ultimately failed to save his own people even though he was divinely conceived for that very purpose. Jesus judged and condemned Israel according to Mark 11 in the parable of the fig tree. He was also a failed savior in that he failed to save Judah from the Romans and their Jewish collaborators. The difference between these two Nazarite heroes is that Samson failed in his mission due to his weakness for a woman and Jesus’ lack of success was due to the weakness of his followers who failed to support his cause. So, Jesus biography finds its origins in Judaism and not Greco-Roman mythology.
The Gospel of Mark does not narrate the circumstances surrounding Jesus’ conception and birth. However, Mark does address Joseph’s social status which was altered to read tekton (carpenter in Greek) in order to eliminate the disparaging Aramaic word ‘tachan’ or miller, a word which suggested a derogatory social status. Since, Mark is the oldest and the source gospel for Matthew, Luke and John, the author of Matthew seems to have latched on to the Greek word ‘tekton’. However, the idea that Jesus’ father was a carpenter is contradictory to Jesus’ education as a rabbi and a preacher of the Torah in the synagogues. It is consistent with his status as a rabbi that Jesus’ birth from Mary, his Nazarite mother and Joseph, his father, was accepted by the clergy in Galilee, who may have educated Jesus in the Torah. Nevertheless, the circumstances of his birth were rejected by at least some of his fellow town folk as is indicated in the Quran and in the Gospel of Mark.
The Samaritans expected a taheb or restorer, who would restore the Torah to a temple on their holy mountain, Mount Gerizim. Their temple had been previously destroyed by John Hyrcanus, so they were expecting the taheb to restore this place of worship to their holy mountain. The Samaritan clergy, who likely educated Jesus while he was in Galilee, may have viewed Jesus as their expected taheb.
That Jesus was most likely educated by Zachariah who was a Samaritan priest. His education would explain his conflict with the Pharisees and Sadducees in Jerusalem. The Jerusalem temple authorities were in conflict with the Samaritan clergy and openly opposed the re-establishment of their center of worship on Mount Gerizim. It would also explain the “Good Samaritan” parable in Luke (10:29-37) in which Samaritans are portrayed in a favorable manner, which was contrary to the popular view in Judea. At that time, the Samaritans were labeled as Cutheans or of Assyrian ancestry. In other words, they were viewed as Jewish imposters who were not descendants of Abraham. Jesus as a Samaritan prophet would also explain the transfiguration vision in which Jesus appeared between Moses and Elijah on Mount Tabor located in Galilee; an episode which appears in the gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. According to Mark 9:2-8:
“After six days Jesus took Peter, James and John with him and led them up a high mountain, where they were all alone. There he was transfigured before them. His clothes became dazzling white, whiter than anyone in the world could bleach them. And there appeared before them Elijah and Moses, who were talking with Jesus.”
Elijah was sent as a prophet to Israel (Samaria in Jesus’ time) and the Samaritans were looking for the return of a Moses-like figure or taheb, which means restorer. The vision of Jesus appearing between these 2 great prophets is a confirmation that he was the Jewish Messiah as well as the Samaritan taheb who was sent to restore the temple on Mount Gerizim. It would also explain Jesus’ pre-arranged meeting with his disciples after his “crucifixion” in Mark 14:28: “But after that I am risen, I will go before you into Galilee.” After Jesus was certain that the ruse succeeded, he fled and left a loyal follower to instruct the female disciples in Mar 16:7: “But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goes before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, as he said unto you.”
The above plot to re-assemble in Galilee after the crucifixion indicates that the crucifixion was a ruse and that Jesus escaped safely to Galilee with his disciples (ref. Jesus & the Crucifixion Plot). It was in Galilee where he and his disciples made themselves ready for an attempt to “re-claim” Mount Gerizem with the blessing of the Samaritan clergy. Jesus and his disciples had previously instigated a temple revolt in Jerusalem, which appears in all four gospels: According to Mark 11:15-19:
“And they came to Jerusalem. And he entered the temple and began to drive out those who sold and those who bought in the temple, and he overturned the tables of the money-changers and the seats of those who sold pigeons. And he would not allow anyone to carry anything through the temple. And he was teaching them and saying to them, “Is it not written, ‘My house shall be called a house of prayer for all the nations’? But you have made it a den of robbers.” And the chief priests and the scribes heard it and were seeking a way to destroy him, for they feared him, because all the crowd was astonished at his teaching. And when evening came they went out of the city.”
In addition, the authors of the gospels knew of an insurrectionist named Jesus Bar Abba. This character appears beside Jesus, King of the Jews, in the judgement scene in front of Pilate. Bar Abba means ‘Son of the father’ (Yhwh or El). The belief that the divinity was a relative was common in Semitic cultures including the Jewish culture. The Biblical name Abijah or Yhwh is my father, is found in 1 Kings 14:1. It is evident that Jesus, the prophet, was Jesus Bar Abba as he is the only character in the gospels who attempted an insurrection against the temple authority and, who, the gospel authors falsely claimed divine parentage.
The gospels chosen by the Roman church turned Jesus from an insurrectionist into a pacifist so that his followers would not be tempted to revolt against Rome and their collaborating temple authorities in Jerusalem as Jesus did when he invaded the temple. Jesus was emulating Judas Maccabeus who instigated a successful revolt in 164 BCE against the Seleucids who occupied Samaria and Judea. After his victory at the Battle of Emmaus, Judas cleansed the Jerusalem temple of its Hellenistic impurities and re-concentrated it to the law of Moses. Jesus’ temple revolt was an attempt to recreate a similar cleansing of the Jerusalem temple.
The Jerusalem temple revolt parallels the Samaritan Prophet’s attempted re-establishment of the Samaritan temple on Mount Gerizim. This event took place in 36 CE or just three years after the crucifixion ruse. Jesus and his disciples may have used these three years to prepare for the laying of the temple corner stone on Mount Gerizem. The Mount Gerizem episode was viewed by the Romans as a revolt against their authority and was crushed by Pilate. The Mount Gerizim revolt may be evidence that Jesus was the un-named Samaritan Prophet referred to by Titus Flavius Josephus in his book, Jewish Antiquities 18.85-87.
Jesus was the Prophet from Galilee whose birth set off a controversy which is disputed by Christian and Jewish theologians even today. Muslims maintain the Quran’s position that Mary was a chaste woman who was chosen by Allah to bear the Prophet Jesus. According to Mark 6:3, one can conclude that the circumstances surrounding his conception were known to his town folk as is indicated in the Quran 19:16-33. His conception by divine decree, i.e., Mary’s dispensation from her Nazarite vows, was meant to proclaim him as the Messiah who would restore Palestine to the rule of Allah and to an important, centralized position in the religious world. The Jews in Jerusalem rejected Jesus’ mission and attempted to murder him. However, Jesus succeed in his prophetic mission to proclaim Allah’s message despite the tremendous opposition of his enemies and despite his apparent failure to occupy the Jerusalem temple and re-establish the Samaritan temple. It was not he who failed, but those who opposed his mission who failed. This rejection was the prelude to the appearance of the Arabian Prophet, Muhammad (pbuh) in Mecca five hundred years after Jesus’ mission. May Allah bless Jesus’ efforts to restore his people to the law of Allah and to restore their favor as a people chosen to preach and practice the religion Allah revealed to all of his prophets. And Allah (swt) knows best.